Breed selection of beef cattle

Jan 1st,1970

Breed selection of beef cattle cattle farm equipment

1、 Introduction of beef cattle breeds


1. Piemonte cattle


Piemonte cattle is a large high-lean breed in Europe, which was introduced in Guizhou in 1998.


Origin: Italy


Appearance features: It is characterized by thin skin, thin bone, obvious double-muscle type, and particularly rich hindquarters muscles. The whole body is covered with creamy white or light gray hair, and the tail broom is black.


Physical condition: adult bulls weigh 1100 kg and cows weigh 600 kg. The slaughter rate is 70%, and the carcass lean meat rate is 82%.


2. Angus cattle


Also known as Aberdeen Angus cattle, it is a small and precocious beef cattle breed in Europe. It was introduced in China in the 1970s, but it did not attract attention. Sichuan and Guizhou were introduced in large quantities in 1998.


Origin: Aberdeen and Angus in northern Scotland


Area appearance features: the whole body is covered with pure black wool, and the head is hornless, so it is also called hornless black cattle.


Physical condition: it has the characteristics of fast growth, cold resistance, rough feeding resistance, strong grazing ability, easy fattening, good meat quality, obvious muscle marble texture, etc. Adult bulls weigh 800~900 kg and cows 500~550 kg. One-year-old cattle weigh up to 400 kg and gain 900-1000 g daily. The slaughter rate is 60%~65%.


3. Charolais


Charolais is a large breed of beef cattle in Europe. In 1976, the frozen semen of Charolais cattle was introduced into Guizhou as a hybrid combination test, and in 1998, Charolais cattle were introduced.


Origin: France


Appearance characteristics: the whole body is creamy white or white.


Physical condition: large size, fast weight gain, developed body muscles, high slaughter rate, more lean meat, less fat, and tolerance to rough feeding. Adult bulls weigh 1100-1200 kg and cows 700-800 kg. One-year-old bulls weigh 3788 kg and cows 321.6 kg. Finishing for 4 months at the age of 11 months, daily gain of 1088-1430 grams, slaughter rate of 69%~70%, and eye muscle area of 100 square centimeters.

portable milking machine for cows


4. Simmental


Simmental cattle, a large dairy and meat variety, was introduced into China in 1957 to improve local cattle.


Origin: Alps in western Switzerland, distributed in Germany, France, Austria and other surrounding countries.


Appearance features: the whole body is covered with yellow and white flowers or red and white flowers, and the head, chest, abdomen, limbs and tail are white.


Physical condition: It is characterized by large body, strong physique, rough feeding tolerance, strong adaptability, developed muscle, more lean meat and less fat. The adult bull weighs 1000-1100 kg, the cow 600-700 kg, and the one-year-old cow weight can reach 400-450 kg. The fattening and slaughtering rate of the male calf is 65%, the average annual milk yield of the female cow is 4070 kg, and the milk fat rate is 3.9%.


5. Limousin cattle


Limousin cattle is a large beef breed.


Origin: France


Appearance characteristics: body coat is pure red


Physical condition: large body, developed body muscles, high meat yield, good meat quality, large eye muscle area, adult bull weight 950-1100 kg, cow 700-800 kg. One-year-old cattle weight can reach 450-480 kg, average daily gain 1040 g, slaughter rate 65%, carcass lean meat rate 80%~85%.


6. Herford cattle


Heyford cattle is a medium early mature beef cattle breed in Europe, divided into horned and hornless.


Origin: West England


Appearance characteristics: the coat is red except the head, neck droop, pangolin, lower abdomen, limbs and tail are white


Physical condition: fast weight gain, early maturity, easy fat, full gluteal muscle, good meat production performance, high feed remuneration. tractor supply cow manure


The adult bull weighs 900 kg and the cow 700 kg. The weight of bulls at the age of 18 months can reach 707 kg. The slaughter rate is 66%.


7. Neri/ENFI Aquatic


The buffalo is a river type dairy common type


Origin: Pakistan


Appearance characteristics: small size. The hands are black or brown, with glass eyes, white forehead, face, rouge and tailbone, and developed breasts.


Physical condition: adult bull weighs 600-700kg, cow 450-500kg, and annual milk yield 2000-2500kg.


8. Play Chuanniu


It is one of the three excellent local cattle breeds in China, and it is also a large meat and service variety.


Origin: Guanzhong region in the Weihe River basin, Shaanxi Province


Appearance features: tall, strong bones, strong physique, purple, red and yellow fur, pink eye circles and nose glasses. The horn is short and red. Bend outward or backward. The hooves are mostly dark red and black.


Physical condition: the bull has a large head and short neck. The neck droops and the skin is developed, and the cow's head is relatively beautiful. The body height of the adult bull is about 141 cm, and the weight is about 500 kg. The adult female is about 125 cm, and the weight is about 470 kg. The average slaughter rate and net meat rate were 58.3% and 50.5% respectively.


9. Nanyangsheng


It is one of the three excellent local cattle breeds in China


Place of origin: Nanyang City and surrounding areas in the southwest of Henan Province


Appearance features: mainly yellow, but also red and grass white. The hair color on the face, under the abdomen and across the four legs is light. It is the tallest cattle in China. The skin is thin and capillary.


Physical condition: The body weight of the cattle after intensive fattening is 510 kg, the slaughter rate is 64.5%, and the net meat rate is 568%. The meat is tender, bright red in color, with obvious marbling


10. Jinnan cattle


It is one of the three excellent local cattle breeds in China, and belongs to a large variety for both service and meat.


Origin: more than 300000 heads in Yuncheng area, Jinnan Basin, southern Shanxi Province


Appearance characteristics: the coat is jujube red. The body is tall and strong, the front body is developed, the middle body is wide, and the limbs are solid and powerful.


Physical condition: adult bull is 138.6 cm in height and 607 kg in weight; The cow is 117 cm in height and 339.4 kg in weight.


Jinnan cattle have good meat production performance. The slaughter rate at the age of months, the genera rate and net internal rate of Jinnan cattle raised with horizontal copper were 53.6% and 40.3%, the slaughter rate and net meat rate of those fattened with high nutritional level were 59.2% and 51.2%, respectively, and the slaughter rate and net meat rate of fattened adult steer were 62% and 52.69%, respectively.


11. Jiaxian Red Bull


Origin: Jiaxian County, Henan Province, is mainly distributed in suburban counties, Baofeng, Lushan counties and some counties adjacent to each county and Luoyang.


Appearance characteristics: the color is mainly red. The infrared ray of Jiayou is relatively consistent with that of me. It is of medium physique, strong physique, strong bone band, long body gap, rectangular from the side, and has a dual-use body shape. The drooping skin is relatively developed, the fan peak falls sharply, the buttocks are slightly inclined, the limbs are thick, and the span is large and strong. The corners are short, most of which are bent forward and horizontally extended to both sides.


Physical condition: the live weight of adult bull is 425 kg. The live weight of the cow is 365 kg. Jiaxian red cattle have good precocity, and their main body size reaches more than 90% of adult cattle at the age of one. The average slaughter rate of unfertilized adult cattle is 51.4%, the net meat rate is 40.8%, and the eye muscle area is 69.0 square centimeters. The fleshy pier is fine, and the marble pattern is obvious.


12. Bohai Black Cattle


It belongs to medium service meat variety.


Origin: Wudi, Zhanhua, Lijin, Kenli and other counties along the coast of Huimin District, Shandong Province.


Appearance features: short and dense corners, black corners. Low body, wide and long body. The hoof is firm. The body coat, nose, horns and hooves are black.


Physical condition: adult bull weighs 426.3 kg, cow 298.3 kg, adult bull body height is 129.6 cm, and cow body height is 16.2 cm. The fattening performance of the cattle is good. The live weight of the bulls that have been fattened for 4 months to the age of months is 446.25 kg, the slaughter rate is 58.96%, the net meat rate is 51.12%, and the fattening performance is good.


13. Mongolian cattle


Mongolian cattle is an ancient breed, widely distributed in northern provinces and regions of China.


Origin: The cattle production areas are currently estimated to include pastoral areas, agricultural areas and semi-agricultural and semi-pastoral areas. The cattle show good adaptability due to high terrain, cold and windy winter and hot and dry summer in the production area.


External special post: general appearance is head rent heavy, with long horns and undeveloped drooping skin; The chest is flat and deep, and the buttocks are short and oblique; The coat color is mixed, including black, yellow, red and civet.


Physical condition: The size of the cow varies greatly, with an average male life weight of 301~415 kg and a cow of 206~370 kg. The average weight of adult steer with medium fat is 376 kg before slaughter, the slaughter rate is 53.0%, the net meat rate is 44.6%, and the eye muscle area is 56.0 square centimeters.


14. Kazak cattle


Origin: native to the northern and western pastoral areas of Xinjiang. The terrain in the production area fluctuates greatly, with cold winter and hot and dry summer. Perennial herding words, no forage and no shed, make the cattle have good rough, bitter and stress resistance.


Appearance characteristics: the cow is thick and strong, with a high hindquarters, and its coat is mostly mottled, with black and yellow fur, in addition to red, brown and colored fur.


Physical condition: The adult bull weighs 369.6 kg and the cow 301.4 kg. The size of each animal varies greatly. The average slaughter rate of beef cattle can reach 55.0%, and the meat quality is fine, the fat distribution is good, and the air-dried taste is good. The milk yield of cows is good, with an average of 450.2 grams. Under good feeding conditions, the lactation period can reach 210 days.


15. Minnan cattle


Place of origin: in the southern part of Fujian Province, from Fuzhou to Xiamen. This cow is bred by local farmers for a long time according to the needs of agricultural production and the humid and rainy climate.


Appearance characteristics: Minnan cattle have compact physique, good structure and relatively plump muscles. The hair color is mainly yellow and brown, and a few individuals are black and brownish red.


Physical condition: adult bull weighs 327 ± 43 kg, and cow 258 ± 29 kg; The body height of bulls is 116 ± 7 cm, and that of females is 112.4 ± 4.6 cm. After fattening, the average slaughter rate of month-old steer is 52.9%, the net meat rate is 44.8%, the eye muscle area is 57 ± 7.1 square cm, the meat is tender and delicious.


2、 Selection of suitable varieties


1. Principle of beef cattle introduction under different ecological conditions


Introduce varieties similar to local natural ecological environment: mainly consider temperature, precipitation, humidity, altitude, terrain and soil, etc. If the environmental similarity between the two places is high, it means that there is a foundation for raising this beef cattle breed well.


Varieties that have been well adapted to local natural conditions after acclimation: some beef cattle breeds introduced from abroad have been well adapted to the natural ecological environment in some parts of China after a period of acclimation in China and careful breeding and management, although the environment of origin is quite different from the natural ecological environment in China. Therefore, these varieties are optional.


Local cattle breeds are the basis of beef production: although some local cattle breeds in China have very general meat production performance, they can adapt well to the local ecological environment and have strong adaptability. Therefore, they can be used as female parent in beef cattle cross combinations, which is the basis of beef cattle production.


2. Selection principles of beef cattle breeds under different ecological and production conditions


Areas above 2500 meters above sea level:


The natural conditions in this area are relatively harsh, with high altitude, long duration of severe cold, low oxygen content in the air, and other cattle breeds other than yak are difficult to adapt to this harsh natural environment. Therefore, yak or yak are preferred for beef cattle production in this area.


Areas with altitude below 2500 meters:


This area has relatively good natural conditions. Local cattle or Qinchuan cattle can be selected as the female parent, and Simmental cattle, German cattle or Limousin cattle can be selected as the male parent for crossbreeding. The male calves of the first generation of hybrids will be fattened, and the female calves of the first generation of hybrids will continue to be kept for use, and then cross with another introduced variety, and the offspring will be fattened.


Simmental cattle is the preferred male parent for crossbreeding, and it is an ideal choice to crossbreed with German yellow cattle or Limousin cattle.


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